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Key Technology Manufacturing Areas (KTMA)


Initiative focuses on the challenges for manufacturing high volume, low cost Terabit-scale photonic interconnectivity technology for advanced high performance embedded computing and data centers.

Initially focus is on ultra-high-speed, high quality multi-wavelength communications links exceeding TB/s bandwidth densities; and multi-port (high-radix) spatial and wavelength selective, nanosecond-scale reconfigurable switches.

RF Analog  Applications

Initiative objective is to develop manufacturing technologies specifically targeted for producing high volume chip-scale microwave photonics for demanding applications requiring very high optical performance fidelity.  The driving goal is to address the critical challenges for the mass manufacture capable integration of high-dynamic range ultra-low loss broadband PICs and microwave frequency electronic ICs for unprecedented analog RF transmission communication performance.

PIC Sensors

Initiative addresses the manufacturing challenges of chemical and biochemical sensors realized in glass/silicon materials, and demonstrates how the proposed solutions can facilitate high-volume production of embedded sensors connecting to or integrated with mobile platforms. Goals include development and demonstration of manufacturing methods enabling dramatic miniaturization of sensor systems based on  glass/silicon integrated photonics and novel engineered glass surfaces

PIC Array Technologies

Initiative addresses the manufacturing challenges associated with PIC Phased Arrays. The primary focus of this effort will be on chi based LIDAR. Phased arrays enable high-speed steered projection and imaging without moving parts. Applications extend to Light Distance and And Ranging (LIDAR); Biomedical Imaging; Free-Space Communications; and Display Technologies.

Manufacturing Innovation Centers of Excellence (MCE)

EPDA  Electronic Photonic Design Automation

Development of a set of integrated design tools for photonic and combined electronic-photonic components.

Features: Models for Si and InP devices; Integrated electronic-photonic design environment; Design tools/PDK; and intellectual Property protection.

MPWA Multip Project Wafer / Assembly

Provision of full MPWA services including Foundry Broker and Foundry Operations for both Si and InP based photonic devices & components

Features: Availability of in-house 300 mmm Si and InP fabrication faciliites; III-V laser integration; Interposer 2.5D/3D integration; and Integrated inline and optical test

ICT Inline Control & Test

Robust optical testing for photonics applications using inline and stand-alone approaches.

Features: High-throughput, high-functionality wafer-scale optical probe test; on wafer photonic test cells for process control; and Multi-channel I/O fiber array test interfaces.

TAP Test, Assembly & Optical Packaging

Development of standardized advanced automated, no-touch and accessible processes for PIC test, assembly & optical packaging. Features suite of 2D, 2.5D and 3D automated optical element align on interposer, fiber/WG attach, and pick and place capabilities; Sub micron 3D inspection tools; and In-house prototype photonics optical packaging center.

To learn more about AIM Photonics click HERE


"Foundry-Enabled Scalable All-to-All Optical Interconnects using Silicon Nitride Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router Interposers and Silicon Photonic Transceivers," Zhang, Y., et al., submitted to Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Special issue on Foundry Enabled Photonic Integrated Circuits.

"Linewidth enhancement factor in InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on and its implication in isolator-free and narrow linewidth applications," Z. Zhang, et al. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. Vol. 25, 2019.

"High Performance Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon (Invited)," Roger Helkey, Adel Saleh, Jim Buckwalter, John E. Bowers, Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Special Issue on Foundry-Enabled Circuits, 2019. 
"Foundry Capabilities for Photonic Integrated Circuits," Michael Liehr, Moritz Baier, Gloria Hoefler, Nicholas M. Fahrenkopf, John Bowers, Richard Gladhill, Peter O’Brien, Erman Timurdogan, Zhan Su, Chapter 4, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VII, 2019.

"A 0.5-20 GHz RF Silicon Photonic Receiver with 120 dB.Hz2/3 SFDR using Broadband Distributed IM3 Injection Linearization," N. Hosseinzadeh, K. Ning, J. Buckwalter, R. Helkey, A. Jain, IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC), 270-QT988, 2019.

"High capacity Optical Switches Using AIM Photonics," J. E. Bowers, Keynote talk, Spring 2019 ISR-I Meeting, Sunnyvale, March 20, 2019.

"Reliable heterogeneous and monolithic integrated silicon photonics (Invited)," Robert W. Herrick, Catherine Jan, Neil Caranto, Carsten Brandt, Lincoln Busselle, Daehwan Jung, Justin Norman, Jennifer Selvidge, Kunal Mukherjee, John E. Bowers, Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC); San Diego, CA; March 3-7, 2019

"A High Spur-Free Dynamic Range Silicon DC Kerr Ring Modulator for RF Applications," A. Jain, N. Hosseinzadeh, X. Wu, H.-K. Tsang, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, J.Buckwalter, J. Lightwave Tech., p. 3261-3272, 2019. 10.1109/JLT.2019.2913638

"A Spectrally-Partitioned Microring-based Crossbar Switch with Multiple Drops per Cross-point," T. Hirokawa, A. Maharry, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, A. Saleh, C. Schow, IEEE Photonics Society 2019.

"A 1 to 20 GHz Silicon-Germanium Low-Noise Distributed Driver for RF Silicon Photonic Mach-Zehnder Modulators" N. Hosseinzadeh, A. Jain, R. Helkey, J. Buckwalter, IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, 2019.

"Demonstration of a Spectrally-Partitioned 4x4 Crossbar Switch with 3 Drops per Cross-point," T. Hirokawa, A. Maharry, R. Helkey, J. Bowers, A. Saleh, C. Schow, OECC International Conference on Photonics in Switching and Computing, 2019.

“Multi-wavelength selective crossbar switch," Khope, Saeidi, Yu, Wu, Netherton, Liu, Zhang, Xia, Fleeman, Spott, Pinna, Schow, Helkey, Theogarajan, Alferness, Saleh, Bowers, Optics Express 7, 5203-5216, 2019. 

"Sources of RF Intermodulation Distortion in Silicon Photonic Modulators," N. Hosseinzadeh, A. Jain, R. Helkey, J. Buckwalter, Avionics and Vehicle Fiber-Optics and Photonics Conference (AVFOP), TuA2, 2018.

"High Capacity Multiwavelength Selective Optical Switches Using AIM Photonics," Bowers, Khope, Helkey, Saleh, Integrated Photonics System Roadmap (IPSR) Meeting, 2019.

"Linear Ring Modulators with DC Kerr Phase Shifters," Aditya Jain, Xinru Wu, John E. Bowers, Roger Helkey, James F. Buckwalter, Avionics and Vehicle Fiber-Optics and Photonics Conference (AVFOP), TuA3, 2018

"Verilog-A Compact Modeling and Simulation of AWGR based All-to-All Optical Interconnects," Zhang, K., et al. CLEO: QELS_Fundamental Science. Optical Society of America, 2018.

"RF Silicon Photonics for Wideband, High Dynamic Range Microwave and Millimeter-wave Signal Processing," Hosseinzadeh, Jain, Helkey, Buckwalter, Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, pp. 41-44,, 2018

"Gain Characterization and Parameter Extraction of 1.3 μm InAs Quantum Dot Lasers on Silicon," Z. Zhang, D. Jung, J. Norman, P. Patel, A. C. Gossard, and J. E. Bowers, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest, paper SW4I.3, 2018, (

"Compact Modeling for Silicon Photonic Heterogeneously Integrated Circuits," Z. Zhang, R. Wu, Y. Wang, C. Zhang, E. Stanton, C. Schow, T. Cheng, J. Bowers, Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2017.

"On-chip wavelength locking for photonic switches," Khope, Hirokawa, Netherton, Saeidi, Xia, Schow, Helkey, Theogarajan, Saleh, Bowers, Alferness, Optics Letters, 2017. 

"Forward Bias Operation of Silicon Photonic Mach Zehnder Modulators for RF Applications," Chao, Shi, Jain, Hirokawa, Khope, Schow, Bowers, Helkey, Buckwalter, Optics Express, 2017. 

"Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits," R. Helkey and J. Bowers, International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, 2016. 

"AIM Photonic Integrated Circuits Applications (Invited)," R. Helkey et al, Raytheon Multifunctional Electro-Optical System Symposium, El Segundo 2018

"Forward Bias Optimization of a Silicon Photonic Modulator for Analog Application," Jain, Chao, Shi, Schow, Bowers, Helkey, Buckwalter, IEEE Avionics and Vehicle Fiber-Optics and Photonics Conference, 2017. 

"Elastic WDM optoelectronic crossbar switch with on-chip wavelength control," Khope, Netherton, Hirokawa, Volet, Stanton, Schow, Helkey, Saleh, Bowers, Alferness, OSA Photonics in Switching 2017. 

"Dual-Use Silicon Integrated Photonics Applications," Helkey, Komljenovic, Huang, Liu, Norman, Bowers, Advanced Technology for National Security Workshop, Lexington MA 2017.

"American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (Invited)," Helkey, Defense Manufacturing Conference, 2016.

"AIM Photonics Overview", Helkey, Institute for Energy Efficiency Emerging Technologies Review, 2016.